Is Methotrexate a Antimetabolite?

Asked By: Azzedine Eichner | Last Updated: 20th May, 2020
Category: medical health cancer
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Methotrexate is an antimetabolite of the antifolate type. It is thought to affect cancer and rheumatoid arthritis by two different pathways. For cancer, methotrexate competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme that participates in the tetrahydrofolate synthesis.

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Accordingly, what class of drug is methotrexate?

Methotrexate is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. Methotrexate treats cancer by slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to stop scales from forming. Methotrexate may treat rheumatoid arthritis by decreasing the activity of the immune system.

Additionally, what is an antimetabolite drug? Antimetabolites are drugs that interfere with one or more enzymes or their reactions that are necessary for DNA synthesis. They affect DNA synthesis by acting as a substitute to the actual metabolites that would be used in the normal metabolism (for example antifolates interfere with the use of folic acid).

Then, is Methotrexate A immunosuppressant?

Immunosuppressants are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. Methotrexate was developed as a cancer treatment in the 1940s, but it has since become one of the most common medications used, in much smaller doses, to treat rheumatoid arthritis, another autoimmune disease.

Is Methotrexate the same as methotrexate sodium?

Methotrexate Sodium Description Methotrexate (formerly Amethopterin) is an antimetabolite used in the treatment of certain neoplastic diseases, severe psoriasis, and adult rheumatoid arthritis. Chemically methotrexate is L-Glutamic acid, N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]methylamino]benzoyl]-,disodium salt(9CI).

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What should you not take with methotrexate?

Methotrexate can be taken with other medications. You should not take methotrexate while taking antibiotics containing trimethoprim-sulfa (Bactrim®, Sulfatrim®, etc…). If you are prescribed one of these medications for an infection, do not take your methotrexate that week.

What drugs can you not take with methotrexate?

Nonprescription medicines/herbals/vitamins to avoid when taking methotrexate
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., ibuprofen [Motrin, Advil]) or aspirin.
  • Vitamins that contain folate, echinacea.

How long can you stay on methotrexate?

How long can a patient stay on Methotrexate? Many patients with rheumatoid arthritis have stayed on this drug for 20 years or more.

How does methotrexate make you feel?

Because methotrexate affects rapidly dividing cells that line the mouth and stomach, very common side effects such as painful mouth ulcers, nausea, and diarrhea may result. "People on methotrexate may also suffer from fatigue," adds Whelton.

Can you skip a week of methotrexate?

Methotrexate once-weekly: doses should normally be taken on the same day each week (11,12). If a dose is missed, it can be taken as soon as it is remembered if this is within two days. However, if the dose is three or more days late then a doctor or the rheumatology clinic should be contacted for advice.

How common is hair loss with methotrexate?

But although hair loss is a possibility with methotrexate, it isn't a widespread side effect. According to the Arthritis Foundation, it only affects about 1 to 3 percent of people who take the medication. However, in studies of psoriasis patients, the rate of hair loss is higher: approximately 3 to 10 percent.

How dangerous is methotrexate?

The dangers of daily dosing
Taking methotrexate for as little as three days in a row is enough to cause serious consequences, including sepsis (infection of the blood) and death. Note that this is different to high-dose methotrexate in chemotherapy, where “rescue therapy” is used to prevent toxicity.

How do you know if methotrexate is working?

It can take 3 to 6 weeks to start to feel your methotrexate work. It takes even longer -- 12 weeks -- to get the full effects. Your doctor will test your blood often to check on how well your treatment works and to make sure it's safe for organs such as your liver.

Does methotrexate cause mood swings?

Mood changes may be an idiosyncratic effect of methotrexate or a side effect in a subset of patients already predisposed to the develop- ment of mood disorders. Mood changes are a rare side effect of methotrexate treatment but should be considered as correlates of its neurologic side effects.

Can methotrexate cause dementia?

Treatment for RA May Influence Dementia Risks
They found that the risk of dementia was 63 percent higher in those with RA who took conventional synthetic DMARDs — especially Trexall (methotrexate), Azulfidine (sulfasalazine), or hydroxychloroquinine — compared with those who didn't take these drugs.

How long can you take methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis?

Many RA patients will start to experience an improvement in symptoms after six to eight weeks on methotrexate, but it can take up to six months before you would reach the full benefits of taking the drug.

Can methotrexate shorten your life?

Methotrexate My Decrease Rate of Mortality in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Numerous studies have shown that patients with RA have reduced life expectancy.

What foods should I avoid while taking methotrexate?

? Until instructed by your doctor:
  • Do not drink alcohol.
  • Do not take folic acid supplements including prenatal vitamins.
  • Avoid Folic Acid rich foods (see Low Folic Acid Diet sheet)
  • Do not have intercourse ( use contraception for at least 3 months following.

What are the long term effects of methotrexate?

If you are using methotrexate long term, a liver biopsy is usually recommended. Methotrexate use has rarely caused serious (sometimes fatal) side effects, such as lung problems, lung infections (Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia), skin reactions, diarrhea, and mouth sores (ulcerative stomatitis).

What does methotrexate do to your immune system?

Methotrexate is a type of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). It's used to reduce activity of the immune system for people who have certain conditions. The immune system normally protects the body from infections or bacteria by causing inflammation to fight them.

Can methotrexate cause brain damage?

Methotrexate chemotherapy was found to damage the brain's populations of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The same problem was seen in mouse brains six months after methotrexate was administered.

Does rheumatoid arthritis cause a weakened immune system?

Rheumatoid arthritis develops when the immune system produces antibodies that attach to the linings of joints. If untreated, rheumatoid arthritis causes gradually causes permanent joint damage. Treatments for rheumatoid arthritis can include various oral or injectable medications that reduce immune system overactivity.