What is one of the most common side effects of antimetabolites?

Asked By: Hlal Bernet | Last Updated: 11th January, 2020
Category: medical health cancer
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Common side effects of these medicines include:
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting.
  • Skin rash, which may itch.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • Sores in the mouth or throat.
  • Hair loss. This is reversible, and hair will grow back when treatment ends.
  • Changes in the way foods taste.
  • Weakness or fatigue.

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In this regard, what does an antimetabolite do?

Antimetabolites are drugs that interfere with one or more enzymes or their reactions that are necessary for DNA synthesis. They affect DNA synthesis by acting as a substitute to the actual metabolites that would be used in the normal metabolism (for example antifolates interfere with the use of folic acid).

One may also ask, which of the following drugs are antimetabolites? Included are folic acid antagonists, such as methotrexate; purine antimetabolites, such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, fludarabine phosphate, pentostatin, and cladribine; and the pyrimidine antimetabolites such as 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, cytarabine, and gemcitabine.

Also asked, what is the major side effect of alkylating agents?

Common side effects of these medicines include: An upset stomach, indigestion, nausea, or vomiting. A skin rash, which may itch. Diarrhea or constipation.

How do cancer drugs affect mitosis?

The cell cycle goes from the resting phase, through active growing phases, and then to mitosis (division). The ability of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells depends on its ability to halt cell division. Usually, cancer drugs work by damaging the RNA or DNA that tells the cell how to copy itself in division.

39 Related Question Answers Found

Why are metabolites important?

Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones).

How can you prevent mitosis?

Mitotic inhibitors are derived from natural substances such as plant alkaloids, and prevent cells from undergoing mitosis by disrupting microtubule polymerization, thus preventing cancerous growth. Microtubules are long, ropelike proteins that extend through the cell and move cellular components around.

What drugs are taxanes?

Taxanes are a class of diterpenes. They were originally identified from plants of the genus Taxus (yews), and feature a taxadiene core. Paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere) are widely used as chemotherapy agents. Cabazitaxel was FDA approved to treat hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

Which of the following is an example of an antimetabolite?

Antimetabolite: A drug that is similar enough to a natural chemical to participate in a normal biochemical reaction in cells but different enough to interfere with the normal division and functions of cells. Examples of antimetabolites include 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), methotrexate, and hydroxyurea.

Which are examples of antimetabolites used in chemotherapy?

Examples of cancer drug antimetabolites include, but are not limited to the following:
  • 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
  • 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP)
  • Capecitabine (Xeloda®)
  • Cytarabine (Ara-C®)
  • Floxuridine.
  • Fludarabine.
  • Gemcitabine (Gemzar®)
  • Hydroxycarbamide.

What is chemotherapy made of?

Plant alkaloids are chemotherapy treatments derived made from certain types of plants. The vinca alkaloids are made from the periwinkle plant (catharanthus rosea). The taxanes are made from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree (taxus). The vinca alkaloids and taxanes are also known as antimicrotubule agents.

Is Methotrexate a steroid?

(1) Methotrexate is an effective steroid-sparing agent.

What is anticancer drug?

Anticancer drug, also called antineoplastic drug, any drug that is effective in the treatment of malignant, or cancerous, disease. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, and hormones.

What is the strongest chemo drug?

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is one of the most powerful chemotherapy drugs ever invented. It can kill cancer cells at every point in their life cycle, and it's used to treat a wide variety of cancers.

What does alkylation mean?

Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. The alkyl group may be transferred as an alkyl carbocation, a free radical, a carbanion or a carbene (or their equivalents). In medicine, alkylation of DNA is used in chemotherapy to damage the DNA of cancer cells.

Does chemotherapy change your DNA?

Chemobrain Is Real—Turns Out, It Changes Your DNA. This is what researchers at UCLA found about the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation. It has been known for years that chemotherapy and radiation can affect mental ability.

What is the best food to eat after chemo?

Whole Grains and Starchy Vegetables: oats, quinoa, barley, brown rice, popcorn, corn, potatoes, peas, winter squash, and 100% whole grain bread, pasta, cereal, and crackers. Nutritious Fats: olive oil, canola oil, nut butters (such as peanut butter or almond butter), avocado, nuts, and seeds.

How long does it take for tumors to shrink?

For tumors that divide slowly, the mass may shrink over a long, extended period after radiation stops. The median time for a prostate cancer to shrink is about 18 months (some quicker, some slower).

Why do patients require rounds of chemotherapeutic drugs?

Why you have chemotherapy in cycles
The drugs aim to kill the cancer cells while causing as little harm as possible to normal, healthy cells. You have chemotherapy as a course of treatments over a few months because: it allows the chemotherapy to kill more cancer cells.

What are the most common chemotherapy drugs?

Some of the most common include:
  • AC: Adriamycin and Cytoxan.
  • AT: Adriamycin and Taxotere.
  • CMF: Cytoxan, methotrexate, and fluorouracil.
  • FAC: Fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and Cytoxan.
  • CAF: Cytoxan, Adriamycin, and fluorouracil.

How many types of chemotherapy drugs are there?

Chemotherapy Drugs. There are more than 100 different chemotherapy drugs. Below are the seven main types of chemotherapy, the types of cancer they treat, and examples. The caution includes things that differ from typical chemotherapy side effects.

Is chemotherapy painful?

Some chemotherapy drugs can cause painful side effects, such as aching in the muscles and joints, headaches and stomach pains. Pain may be felt as burning, numbness, tingling or shooting pains in the hands and feet (called peripheral nerve damage). This type of pain can last long after treatment ends.