Is cytarabine an antimetabolite?

Asked By: Yeney Parmentier | Last Updated: 15th January, 2020
Category: medical health cancer
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Cytarabine is the generic name for the trade name drug Cytosar-U®. Drug type: Cytarabine is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. This medication is classified as an "antimetabolite." (For more detail, see "How cytarabine works" section below).

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Correspondingly, what class of drug is cytarabine?

Cytarabine is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body.

Also, can cytarabine be given Intrathecally? Cytarabine Injection is not active orally. Cytarabine Injection may be given by intravenous infusion or injection, subcutaneously, or intrathecally (preservative free preparation only).

Besides, what is an antimetabolite drug?

Antimetabolites are drugs that interfere with one or more enzymes or their reactions that are necessary for DNA synthesis. They affect DNA synthesis by acting as a substitute to the actual metabolites that would be used in the normal metabolism (for example antifolates interfere with the use of folic acid).

What is cytarabine made from?

Cytosine arabinoside combines a cytosine base with an arabinose sugar. Cytosine arabinoside also inhibits both DNA and RNA polymerases and nucleotide reductase enzymes needed for DNA synthesis. Cytarabine is the first of a series of cancer drugs that altered the sugar component of nucleosides.

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How long does cytarabine stay in your system?

This can put you at risk for infection, anemia and/or bleeding. Nadir: White blood cells: 7-10 days, platelets: 12-15 days.

Does cytarabine cause hair loss?

It is also FDA approved for use with other drugs to treat acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. This medicine may cause a temporary loss of hair in some people. After treatment with cytarabine has ended, normal hair growth should return.

How much does cytarabine cost?

The cost for cytarabine injectable solution (20 mg/mL) is around $22 for a supply of 25 milliliters, depending on the pharmacy you visit.

Injectable Solution.
Quantity Per unit Price
25 milliliters $0.90 – $1.43 $22.39 – $35.75
50 milliliters $0.53 – $0.99 $26.30 – $49.40

What are the side effects of cytarabine?

Common side effects of Cytarabine include:
  • nausea and vomiting (may be severe),
  • loss of appetite,
  • diarrhea,
  • constipation,
  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • injection site reactions (pain, swelling, and redness),
  • drowsiness,

How often is cytarabine given?

In the induction therapy of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, the usual cytarabine dose in combination with other anticancer drugs is 100 mg/m2/day by continuous IV infusion (days 1 to 7) or 100 mg/m2 IV every 12 hours (days 1 to 7).

How does cytarabine affect the skin?

Cytarabine may affect your skin. Cytarabine can cause a rash, which may be itchy. It may also cause your skin to become red or blistered. Always tell your doctor or nurse about any skin changes.

Is cytarabine cell cycle specific?

Chemotherapy drugs that affects cells only when they are dividing are called cell-cycle specific. Cytarabine belongs to the category of chemotherapy called antimetabolites. Antimetabolites are very similar to normal substances within the cell.

What are antimetabolites with example?

Sulfanilamides, for example, are antimetabolites that disrupt bacterial, but not human, metabolism and are used to eradicate bacterial infections in humans. Other examples include antagonists of purines (azathioprine, mercaptopurine, and thioguanine) and antagonists of pyrimidine (fluorouracil and floxuridine).

Which medication is an example of an antimetabolite drug?

Medical Definition of Antimetabolite
So named because the drug inhibits a normal metabolic process. Examples of antimetabolites include 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), methotrexate, and hydroxyurea.

Which are examples of antimetabolites used in chemotherapy?

Examples of cancer drug antimetabolites include, but are not limited to the following:
  • 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
  • 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP)
  • Capecitabine (Xeloda®)
  • Cytarabine (Ara-C®)
  • Floxuridine.
  • Fludarabine.
  • Gemcitabine (Gemzar®)
  • Hydroxycarbamide.

What is one of the most common side effects of antimetabolites?

Common side effects of these medicines include:
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting.
  • Skin rash, which may itch.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • Sores in the mouth or throat.
  • Hair loss. This is reversible, and hair will grow back when treatment ends.
  • Changes in the way foods taste.
  • Weakness or fatigue.

Why are metabolites important?

Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones).

What are the types of chemotherapy drugs?

Types of Chemotherapy
  • Mustard gas derivatives: Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide, Chlorambucil, Melphalan, and Ifosfamide.
  • Ethylenimines: Thiotepa and Hexamethylmelamine.
  • Alkylsulfonates: Busulfan.
  • Hydrazines and Triazines: Altretamine, Procarbazine, Dacarbazine and Temozolomide.
  • Nitrosureas: Carmustine, Lomustine and Streptozocin.

Which of the following is an example of an antitumor antibiotic?

Anthracyclines are anti-tumor antibiotics that interfere with enzymes involved in DNA replication. These drugs work in all phases of the cell cycle. They are widely used for a variety of cancers. Examples of anthracyclines include: Daunorubicin , Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®), Epirubicin, Idarubicin.

What is anti neoplastic agent?

Antineoplastic: Acting to prevent, inhibit or halt the development of a neoplasm (a tumor). An agent with antineoplastic properties. For example, oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) is an antineoplastic used in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer.

What is anticancer drug?

Anticancer drug, also called antineoplastic drug, any drug that is effective in the treatment of malignant, or cancerous, disease. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, and hormones.

Does cytarabine cross the blood brain barrier?

Cytarabine crosses the blood brain barrier to a limited extent and is thought to cross the placental barrier. It is not known if cytarabine is distributed into milk. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of cytarabine are low in comparison to plasma levels after single intravenous injection.