What are antimetabolites used for?

Asked By: Naia Reynoso | Last Updated: 11th April, 2020
Category: medical health cancer
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Antimetabolites are drugs that interfere with one or more enzymes or their reactions that are necessary for DNA synthesis. They affect DNA synthesis by acting as a substitute to the actual metabolites that would be used in the normal metabolism (for example antifolates interfere with the use of folic acid).

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Keeping this in view, what are antimetabolites with example?

Sulfanilamides, for example, are antimetabolites that disrupt bacterial, but not human, metabolism and are used to eradicate bacterial infections in humans. Other examples include antagonists of purines (azathioprine, mercaptopurine, and thioguanine) and antagonists of pyrimidine (fluorouracil and floxuridine).

Secondly, how are antimetabolites administered? 5-FU may be administered by bolus IV infusion or continuous IV infusion over two days every 2-3 weeks or by oral ingestion. In addition, it may be used to treat skin cancers (basal cell and keratosis) by topical application. Other pyrimidine antagonists include: cytarabine, capecitabine, gemcitabine and decitabine.

Also question is, what is one of the most common side effects of antimetabolites?

Common side effects of these medicines include:

  • Loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting.
  • Skin rash, which may itch.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • Sores in the mouth or throat.
  • Hair loss. This is reversible, and hair will grow back when treatment ends.
  • Changes in the way foods taste.
  • Weakness or fatigue.

Which of the following drugs are antimetabolites?

Included are folic acid antagonists, such as methotrexate; purine antimetabolites, such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, fludarabine phosphate, pentostatin, and cladribine; and the pyrimidine antimetabolites such as 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, cytarabine, and gemcitabine.

27 Related Question Answers Found

What is chemotherapy made of?

Plant alkaloids are chemotherapy treatments derived made from certain types of plants. The vinca alkaloids are made from the periwinkle plant (catharanthus rosea). The taxanes are made from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree (taxus). The vinca alkaloids and taxanes are also known as antimicrotubule agents.

Why are metabolites important?

Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones).

Is Methotrexate a steroid?

(1) Methotrexate is an effective steroid-sparing agent.

How do Antifolates work?

Antifolates are a class of antimetabolite medications that antagonise (that is, block) the actions of folic acid (vitamin B9). Consequently, antifolates inhibit cell division, DNA/RNA synthesis and repair and protein synthesis.

What is anticancer drug?

Anticancer drug, also called antineoplastic drug, any drug that is effective in the treatment of malignant, or cancerous, disease. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, and hormones.

Which drug inhibits folic acid synthesis?

That's why sulfa drugs are often administered in combination with trimethoprim, which is another drug that inhibits the bacterial pathway for folic acid synthesis. Trimethoprim competitively inhibits the enzyme that catalyzes the last step in the pathway.

What are the antineoplastic agents?

Medical Definition of Antineoplastic
Antineoplastic: Acting to prevent, inhibit or halt the development of a neoplasm (a tumor). An agent with antineoplastic properties. For example, oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) is an antineoplastic used in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer.

Are antimetabolites cell cycle specific?

Antimetabolites are cell cycle specific. Antimetabolites are most effective during the S-phase of cell division because they primarily act upon cells undergoing synthesis of new DNA for formation of new cells. The toxicities associated with these drugs are seen in cells that are growing and dividing quickly.

What is the major side effect of alkylating agents?

Common side effects of these medicines include: An upset stomach, indigestion, nausea, or vomiting. A skin rash, which may itch. Diarrhea or constipation.

Can mercaptopurine cause cancer?

Taking mercaptopurine may increase the risk that you will develop a new cancer. Some people who took mercaptopurine to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis developed hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma (HSTCL), a very serious form of cancer that often causes death within a short time.

Which are examples of antimetabolites used in chemotherapy?

Examples of cancer drug antimetabolites include, but are not limited to the following:
  • 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
  • 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP)
  • Capecitabine (Xeloda®)
  • Cytarabine (Ara-C®)
  • Floxuridine.
  • Fludarabine.
  • Gemcitabine (Gemzar®)
  • Hydroxycarbamide.

Is mercaptopurine a chemotherapy?

Mercaptopurine is the generic name for the trade name drug Purinethol or Purixan. Drug type: Mercaptopurine is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. This medication is classified as an "antimetabolite." (For more detail, see "How this drug works" section below).

How do alkylating agents affect cell reproduction?

Alkylating agents keep the cell from reproducing (making copies of itself) by damaging its DNA. Because these drugs damage DNA, they can affect the cells of the bone marrow which make new blood cells.

What are antitumor antibiotics?

Antitumor antibiotics are a heterogeneous family of anticancer agents and they act mainly by DNA intercalation, causing a block in the synthesis of DNA and RNA, or through other different, more complex and at a certain extent still ill-defined, mechanisms (especially anthracyclines).

How does methotrexate work for rheumatoid arthritis?

Methotrexate works by reducing the function of the cells that are causing inflammation in the joint tissues. People with swollen and painful joints whose rheumatoid arthritis has not improved with initial, non-drug therapies will most likely be prescribed methotrexate for RA management.

Which of the following is an example of an antitumor antibiotic?

Anthracyclines are anti-tumor antibiotics that interfere with enzymes involved in DNA replication. These drugs work in all phases of the cell cycle. They are widely used for a variety of cancers. Examples of anthracyclines include: Daunorubicin , Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®), Epirubicin, Idarubicin.

Which drug binds to DNA and inhibits its synthesis by preventing cell replication?

Pentostatin binds to and inhibits adenine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme essential to purine metabolism. Inhibition of ADA appears to result in elevated intracellular levels of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) which may block DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase.