Which medication is an example of an antimetabolite drug?

Asked By: Kestutis Kinnear | Last Updated: 5th May, 2020
Category: medical health cancer
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Medical Definition of Antimetabolite
So named because the drug inhibits a normal metabolic process. Examples of antimetabolites include 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), methotrexate, and hydroxyurea.

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Beside this, what is an antimetabolite drug?

Antimetabolites are drugs that interfere with one or more enzymes or their reactions that are necessary for DNA synthesis. They affect DNA synthesis by acting as a substitute to the actual metabolites that would be used in the normal metabolism (for example antifolates interfere with the use of folic acid).

Beside above, what are antimetabolites with example? Sulfanilamides, for example, are antimetabolites that disrupt bacterial, but not human, metabolism and are used to eradicate bacterial infections in humans. Other examples include antagonists of purines (azathioprine, mercaptopurine, and thioguanine) and antagonists of pyrimidine (fluorouracil and floxuridine).

Consequently, which of the following drugs are antimetabolites?

Included are folic acid antagonists, such as methotrexate; purine antimetabolites, such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, fludarabine phosphate, pentostatin, and cladribine; and the pyrimidine antimetabolites such as 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, cytarabine, and gemcitabine.

How do antimetabolites work in the treatment of cancer?

Antimetabolites can be used in cancer treatment, as they interfere with DNA production and therefore cell division and tumor growth. Because cancer cells spend more time dividing than other cells, inhibiting cell division harms tumor cells more than other cells.

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What is one of the most common side effects of antimetabolites?

Common side effects of these medicines include:
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting.
  • Skin rash, which may itch.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • Sores in the mouth or throat.
  • Hair loss. This is reversible, and hair will grow back when treatment ends.
  • Changes in the way foods taste.
  • Weakness or fatigue.

How are antimetabolites administered?

5-FU may be administered by bolus IV infusion or continuous IV infusion over two days every 2-3 weeks or by oral ingestion. In addition, it may be used to treat skin cancers (basal cell and keratosis) by topical application. Other pyrimidine antagonists include: cytarabine, capecitabine, gemcitabine and decitabine.

What is anticancer drug?

Anticancer drug, also called antineoplastic drug, any drug that is effective in the treatment of malignant, or cancerous, disease. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include alkylating agents, antimetabolites, natural products, and hormones.

Why are metabolites important?

Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones).

What are the types of chemotherapy drugs?

Types of Chemotherapy
  • Mustard gas derivatives: Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide, Chlorambucil, Melphalan, and Ifosfamide.
  • Ethylenimines: Thiotepa and Hexamethylmelamine.
  • Alkylsulfonates: Busulfan.
  • Hydrazines and Triazines: Altretamine, Procarbazine, Dacarbazine and Temozolomide.
  • Nitrosureas: Carmustine, Lomustine and Streptozocin.

Is Methotrexate a steroid?

(1) Methotrexate is an effective steroid-sparing agent.

What is anti neoplastic agent?

Antineoplastic: Acting to prevent, inhibit or halt the development of a neoplasm (a tumor). An agent with antineoplastic properties. For example, oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) is an antineoplastic used in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer.

Which drug inhibits folic acid synthesis?

That's why sulfa drugs are often administered in combination with trimethoprim, which is another drug that inhibits the bacterial pathway for folic acid synthesis. Trimethoprim competitively inhibits the enzyme that catalyzes the last step in the pathway.

Which of the following is an example of an antitumor antibiotic?

Anthracyclines are anti-tumor antibiotics that interfere with enzymes involved in DNA replication. These drugs work in all phases of the cell cycle. They are widely used for a variety of cancers. Examples of anthracyclines include: Daunorubicin , Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®), Epirubicin, Idarubicin.

What is the spread of a malignant tumor to a secondary site?

When tumor cells metastasize, the new tumor is called a secondary or metastatic tumor, and its cells are similar to those in the original or primary tumor. This means that if breast cancer metastasizes to the lungs, the secondary tumor is made up of abnormal breast cells, not of abnormal lung cells.

Which drug binds to DNA and inhibits its synthesis by preventing cell replication?

Pentostatin binds to and inhibits adenine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme essential to purine metabolism. Inhibition of ADA appears to result in elevated intracellular levels of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) which may block DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase.

What are antitumor antibiotics?

Antitumor antibiotics are a heterogeneous family of anticancer agents and they act mainly by DNA intercalation, causing a block in the synthesis of DNA and RNA, or through other different, more complex and at a certain extent still ill-defined, mechanisms (especially anthracyclines).

What do alkylating agents do?

Alkylating agents are compounds that work by adding an alkyl group to the guanine base of the DNA molecule, preventing the strands of the double helix from linking as they should. This causes breakage of the DNA strands, affecting the ability of the cancer cell to multiply.

How does methotrexate work for rheumatoid arthritis?

Methotrexate works by reducing the function of the cells that are causing inflammation in the joint tissues. People with swollen and painful joints whose rheumatoid arthritis has not improved with initial, non-drug therapies will most likely be prescribed methotrexate for RA management.

Are antimetabolites cell cycle specific?

Antimetabolites are cell cycle specific. Antimetabolites are most effective during the S-phase of cell division because they primarily act upon cells undergoing synthesis of new DNA for formation of new cells. The toxicities associated with these drugs are seen in cells that are growing and dividing quickly.

Which medication should be given before administering paclitaxel?

Such premedication may consist of dexamethasone 20 mg PO administered approximately 12 and 6 hours before paclitaxel injection, diphenhydramine (or its equivalent) 50 mg IV 30 to 60 minutes prior to paclitaxel injection, and cimetidine (300 mg) or ranitidine (50 mg) IV 30 to 60 minutes before paclitaxel injection.