Is dantrolene used to treat malignant hyperthermia?

Asked By: Hristiyan Salvans | Last Updated: 19th March, 2020
Category: medical health cancer
4/5 (52 Views . 34 Votes)
Dantrolene sodium uncouples the heat-generating mechanism in muscle and is the drug of choice in treating malignant hyperthermia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which cause excessive muscular heat production.

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In this regard, how does dantrolene treat malignant hyperthermia?

Dantrolene is the only currently accepted specific treatment for MH. In an episode of MH, muscle metabolism is dramatically increased secondary to an increase in calcium within the muscle. This causes muscles to contract, ATP hydrolysis, and heat production.

Also, what drug class is dantrolene? Dantrolene is classified as a direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxant. It is currently the only specific and effective treatment for malignant hyperthermia.

Thereof, what drugs are used to treat malignant hyperthermia?

As soon as malignant hyperthermia is suspected, doctors must act rapidly to treat the condition and prevent complications. The first and most important step is to immediately stop giving the triggering medication and to stop the surgery. Doctors then give the drug dantrolene (Dantrium). Dantrolene relaxes the muscles.

How do you give dantrolene?

Administer dantrolene suspension intravenously over at least 1 minute when using for prevention of malignant hyperthermia. Inject into the intravenous catheter while an IV infusion of 0.9% Sodium Chloride injection or 5% Dextrose injection is freely running.

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What is dantrolene the antidote for?

Dantrolene produces relaxation of skeletal muscle without causing complete paralysis, and is the only xenobiotic proven to be effective for both treatment and prophylaxis of malignant hyperthermia (MH).

How long is dantrolene given?

Dantrium Intravenous: The recommended prophylactic dose of Dantrium Intravenous is 2.5 mg/kg, starting approximately 1-1/4 hours before anticipated anesthesia and infused over approximately 1 hour.

How do you cool a patient with malignant hyperthermia?

Noninvasive treatments of hyperthermia include strategic ice packing, forced air cooling, circulating cool water blankets, cold intravenous fluids, and ice-water immersion.

How do you prepare anesthesia for malignant hyperthermia?

Anaesthetic machines are prepared for use with patients who are susceptible to malignant hyperpyrexia (MH) by flushing with oxygen at 10 l/min for ten minutes to reduce the anaesthetic concentration to 1 part per million (ppm) or less.

How long after anesthesia can malignant hyperthermia occur?

, malignant hyperthermia typically occurs shortly after anesthesia is first given. But it can occur at any time during anesthesia or in rare cases may occur as late as 24 hours after surgery. Malignant hyperthermia is very rare.

What is another name for dantrolene?

BRAND NAME(S): Dantrium. WARNING: Infrequently, dantrolene may cause very serious (possibly fatal) liver problems.

Does propofol cause malignant hyperthermia?

Propofol may be a useful anesthetic in the management of malignant hyperthermia patients. It appears not to trigger malignant hyperthermia while providing stress-free conditions.

What are the side effects of dantrolene?

Common side effects of Dantrium Intravenous include:
  • muscle weakness,
  • drowsiness,
  • dizziness,
  • low energy,
  • tired feeling,
  • injection site reactions (pain, redness, or swelling),
  • diarrhea,
  • constipation,

Can you test for malignant hyperthermia?

The caffeine halothane contracture test (CHCT) is the criterion standard for establishing the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia (MH). The test is performed on freshly biopsied muscle tissue at 30 centers worldwide; one of these centers is located in Canada, and four are located in the United States.

How common is malignant hyperthermia?

Malignant hyperthermia occurs in 1 in 5,000 to 50,000 instances in which people are given anesthetic gases. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia is probably more frequent, because many people with an increased risk of this condition are never exposed to drugs that trigger a reaction.

Is malignant hyperthermia fatal?

Malignant hyperthermia is a condition that triggers a severe reaction to certain drugs used as part of anesthesia for surgery. Without prompt treatment, the disease can be fatal. The genes that cause malignant hyperthermia are inherited.

What is an early sign of malignant hyperthermia?

Early clinical signs of MH include an increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide (even with increasing minute ventilation), tachycardia, muscle rigidity, tachypnea, and hyperkalemia. Later signs include fever, myoglobinuria, and multiple organ failure. Anesthetics are inconsistent in triggering MH.

How can Malignant Hyperthermia be prevented?

Malignant hyperthermia can be prevented by avoiding the agents that bring it about: succinylcholine (Anectine®) and inhalational agents. Alternatives are readily available and can be substituted easily.

What is the mechanism of action of dantrolene?

Mechanism of action
Dantrolene depresses excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle by acting as a receptor antagonist to the ryanodine receptor, and decreasing free intracellular calcium concentration.

What is used for general anesthesia?

Propofol is one of the most commonly used intravenous drugs employed to induce and maintain general anesthesia. It can also be used for sedation during procedures or in the ICU.

How does hyperthermia occur?

Hyperthermia refers to a group of heat-related conditions characterized by an abnormally high body temperature — in other words, the opposite of hypothermia. The condition occurs when the body's heat-regulation system becomes overwhelmed by outside factors, causing a person's internal temperature to rise.

What does dantrolene do?

Dantrolene helps reduce muscle pain and stiffness, improves your ability to move around, and lets you do more of your daily activities. Dantrolene is also used with other treatments to prevent or treat special cases of high fever (malignant hyperthermia) related to anesthesia and surgery.