Where is Citrobacter found?

Asked By: Jemaa Cebreiros | Last Updated: 11th April, 2020
Category: medical health infectious diseases
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Citrobacter species are commonly found in water, soil, food, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans.

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Also question is, where is Citrobacter Freundii normally found?

freundii cells generally have several flagella used for locomotion, but some do not and are non-motile. C. freundii is a soil organism, but can also be found in water, sewage, food and in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. The genus Citrobacter was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen.

Secondly, what is a Citrobacter infection? UTIs are among the most common infections in both outpatients as well as hospitalized patients. The genus Citrobacter is a distinct group of aerobic, Gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family, widely distributed in water, soil, food, and intestinal tract of man and animals. UTI caused by Citrobacter spp.

Correspondingly, where is Citrobacter from?

These bacteria can be found almost everywhere in soil, water, wastewater, etc. They can also be found in the human intestine. They are rarely the source of illnesses, except for infections of the urinary tract and infant meningitis and sepsis.

Is Citrobacter Freundii dangerous?

koseri has been associated with cases of neonatal meningitis and brain abscess and C. freundii with gastroenteritis, neonatal meningitis, and septicemia. [3] It is known to cause health care associated infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, blood, and other normally sterile sites in the body.

29 Related Question Answers Found

How is Citrobacter transmitted?

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Citrobacter may be spread by direct contact with hospital staff members, mother to child transmission or through ingestion of environmental sources (fecal-oral route) but person-to-person transmission is more prevalent 7, 11.

How do you get rid of Citrobacter?

Citrobacter freundii infection is usually treated with antibiotics like fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and cephalosporins. The treatment plan depends up on the vulnerability of the microbe to the antibiotics and the site of the infection.

Is Citrobacter h2s positive?

freundii is intrinsically resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam and cephalosporins. They can resemble Salmonella on agar media due to production of H2S by both genera. They are also citrate positive, however, only Citrobacter is positive for ONPG.

Is Citrobacter Koseri contagious?

Citrobacter koseri is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacillus. It is a facultative anaerobe capable of aerobic respiration. It is motile via peritrichous flagella. It is a member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae.

Citrobacter koseri
Specialty Infectious disease

Is Citrobacter Freundii normal flora?


Clinical Bacteriology
Citrobacter is part of the normal gut flora; Citrobacter freundii can cause diarrhea and possibly extraintestinal infections. C. diversus may cause meningitis in newborns. They are biochemically similar to Klebsiella and can cause opportunistic infections of the urinary tract.

What antibiotics treat Citrobacter Koseri?

koseri mandates antimicrobial therapy based on the sensitivity of the pathogen microorganism. Various types of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections.

Is Citrobacter Freundii a pathogen?

As an opportunistic pathogen, Citrobacter freundii is often the cause of significant opportunistic infections, meaning that it does not generally cause disease in healthy human hosts. One fatal disease that C. freundii has been associated with is neonatal meningitis.

How is Citrobacter Koseri treated?

Various types of antibiotics, including amino- glycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections. Treatment options can be monotherapy, with agents potentially active against Citrobacter spp. or combination therapy [8].

Where does Citrobacter Koseri come from?

Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus) is a motile gram-negative bacillus usually arising from urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. C. koseri rarely causes infection in immunocompetent patients and, thus far, has been considered an opportunistic pathogen.

Does all Enterobacteriaceae ferment glucose?


The Enterobacteriaceae are gram-negative, non–spore-forming, facultative anaerobes that ferment glucose and other sugars, reduce nitrate to nitrite, and produce catalase but (with the exception of Plesiomonas) do not produce oxidase. Most are motile by virtue of peritrichous (as opposed to polar) flagella.

Is Enterobacteriaceae Gram positive?

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming rods. Characteristics of this family include being motile, catalase positive, and oxidase negative; reduction of nitrate to nitrite; and acid production from glucose fermentation.

What is Citrobacter Koseri in the urine?

C. koseri is a gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting rod that is often part of normal human flora. It causes infections almost exclusively in neonates and infants—primarily meningitis—and in immune-compromised hosts.4 In the adult patient, the urinary tract is one of the most common sites of infection by Citrobacter.

Does Citrobacter Freundii ferment glucose?

These facultative anaerobes typically are motile by means of peritrichous flagella. They ferment glucose and other carbohydrates with the production of acid and gas. They are oxidase negative, catalase and methyl red positive, Voges-Proskauer negative, and do not decarboxylate lysine.

What is Citrobacter Koseri infection?

Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillus that causes mostly meningitis and brain abscesses in neonates and infants. However, brain abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri infection in an adult is extremely rare, and only 2 cases have been described.

Where is Proteus vulgaris found?


Proteus vulgaris. Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole+ and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.

Is Klebsiella Gram positive or negative?

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It appears as a mucoid lactose fermenter on MacConkey agar.

What is Enterobacter species?

Enterobacter species are motile aerobic gram negative bacilli belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The major species areEnterobacter cloacae, E. aerogenes and E. agglomerans.