What causes Citrobacter Freundii?

Asked By: Juergen Epton | Last Updated: 29th February, 2020
Category: medical health infectious diseases
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Therefore, in patients with a suppressed immune system, Citrobacter species are known to cause a wide variety of nosocomial infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and the blood [2]. Hepatic, biliary and pancreatic disease are also common diseases that are caused by C. freundii.

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Consequently, how is Citrobacter Freundii transmitted?

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Citrobacter may be spread by direct contact with hospital staff members, mother to child transmission or through ingestion of environmental sources (fecal-oral route) but person-to-person transmission is more prevalent 7, 11.

Subsequently, question is, how serious is Citrobacter Freundii? koseri has been associated with cases of neonatal meningitis and brain abscess and C. freundii with gastroenteritis, neonatal meningitis, and septicemia. [3] It is known to cause health care associated infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, blood, and other normally sterile sites in the body.

Then, where is Citrobacter Freundii normally found?

freundii cells generally have several flagella used for locomotion, but some do not and are non-motile. C. freundii is a soil organism, but can also be found in water, sewage, food and in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. The genus Citrobacter was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen.

How do you get rid of Citrobacter Freundii?

Citrobacter freundii infection is usually treated with antibiotics like fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and cephalosporins. The treatment plan depends up on the vulnerability of the microbe to the antibiotics and the site of the infection.

27 Related Question Answers Found

How do you get Citrobacter?

In patient with Citrobacter infections, the bacteria can be transmitted vertically from mother or horizontally from carriers or other hospital sources (14). The infection may occur as sporadic cases or nosocomial outbreaks.

What is Citrobacter Freundii in urine?

[1,2] The genus Citrobacter is distinct group of aerobic, gram negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae family, widely distributed in water, soil, food and intestinal tract of man and animals. UTIs caused by Citrobacter species have been described in 5 to 12% of bacterial urine isolates in adults.

Does Citrobacter cause UTI?

Citrobacter isolates are reported to be the third most common organisms causing UTI in hospitalized patients after Escherichia More Details coli and Klebsiella species accounting for 9.4% of all isolates. UTI caused by Citrobacter spp.

Is Citrobacter Freundii normal flora?

Clinical Bacteriology
Citrobacter is part of the normal gut flora; Citrobacter freundii can cause diarrhea and possibly extraintestinal infections. C. diversus may cause meningitis in newborns. They are biochemically similar to Klebsiella and can cause opportunistic infections of the urinary tract.

Is Citrobacter Koseri contagious?


Citrobacter koseri is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacillus. It is a facultative anaerobe capable of aerobic respiration. It is motile via peritrichous flagella. It is a member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae.

Citrobacter koseri
Specialty Infectious disease

Where does Citrobacter Koseri come from?

Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus) is a motile gram-negative bacillus usually arising from urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. C. koseri rarely causes infection in immunocompetent patients and, thus far, has been considered an opportunistic pathogen.

Is Citrobacter a lactose fermenter?

Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative coliform bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The species C. koseri is the only citrobacter to be commonly indole-positive), ferment lactose (C. koseri is a lactose fermentor), and use malonate.

How is Citrobacter Koseri treated?

Various types of antibiotics, including amino- glycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections. Treatment options can be monotherapy, with agents potentially active against Citrobacter spp. or combination therapy [8].

Is Citrobacter h2s positive?

freundii is intrinsically resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam and cephalosporins. They can resemble Salmonella on agar media due to production of H2S by both genera. They are also citrate positive, however, only Citrobacter is positive for ONPG.

What antibiotics treat Citrobacter Koseri?


koseri mandates antimicrobial therapy based on the sensitivity of the pathogen microorganism. Various types of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections.

Is Citrobacter Koseri dangerous?

Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts.

Does Citrobacter Freundii ferment glucose?

These facultative anaerobes typically are motile by means of peritrichous flagella. They ferment glucose and other carbohydrates with the production of acid and gas. They are oxidase negative, catalase and methyl red positive, Voges-Proskauer negative, and do not decarboxylate lysine.

Is e Aerogenes Gram positive or negative?

Klebsiella aerogenes, previously known as Enterobacter aerogenes, is a Gram-negative, oxidase negative, catalase positive, citrate positive, indole negative, rod-shaped bacterium. The bacterium is approximately 1-3 microns in length, and is capable of motility via peritrichous flagella.

Where is Proteus vulgaris found?

Proteus vulgaris. Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole+ and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.

Where are Enterobacter aerogenes found naturally?


Enterobacter are found in the soil, water, dairy products, and in the intestines of animals as well as humans. They are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract and are studied in clinical sites in stool samples.

Is Klebsiella Gram positive or negative?

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It appears as a mucoid lactose fermenter on MacConkey agar.

Is Enterobacter aerogenes a lactose fermenter?

These bacteria ferment lactose, are motile, and form mucoid colonies. Enterobacter strains commonly arise from the endogenous intestinal flora of hospitalized patients but can occur in common source outbreaks or are spread from patient to patient.