Where is Citrobacter Braakii found?

Asked By: Zarah Osterhof | Last Updated: 22nd April, 2020
Category: medical health infectious diseases
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EPIDEMIOLOGY. Citrobacter species are commonly found in water, soil, food, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many Citrobacter infections are nosocomially acquired; however, they can also be community acquired.

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Keeping this in view, how is Citrobacter transmitted?

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Citrobacter may be spread by direct contact with hospital staff members, mother to child transmission or through ingestion of environmental sources (fecal-oral route) but person-to-person transmission is more prevalent 7, 11.

Also, how do you treat Citrobacter? Citrobacter freundii infection is usually treated with antibiotics like fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and cephalosporins. The treatment plan depends up on the vulnerability of the microbe to the antibiotics and the site of the infection.

Also to know, what is a Citrobacter infection?

UTIs are among the most common infections in both outpatients as well as hospitalized patients. The genus Citrobacter is a distinct group of aerobic, Gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family, widely distributed in water, soil, food, and intestinal tract of man and animals. UTI caused by Citrobacter spp.

Is Citrobacter Freundii dangerous?

koseri has been associated with cases of neonatal meningitis and brain abscess and C. freundii with gastroenteritis, neonatal meningitis, and septicemia. [3] It is known to cause health care associated infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, blood, and other normally sterile sites in the body.

26 Related Question Answers Found

Can you get a urinary tract infection from a toilet seat?

These types of infections of the urinary tract are almost never contagious to other individuals. It is unlikely for anyone to get a UTI or STD from a toilet seat, as the urethra in males and females typically wouldn't touch the toilet seat.

How long do UTI take to go away?

Most UTIs can be cured. Bladder infection symptoms most often go away within 24 to 48 hours after treatment begins. If you have a kidney infection, it may take 1 week or longer for symptoms to go away.

Is Citrobacter Freundii normal flora?

Clinical Bacteriology
Citrobacter is part of the normal gut flora; Citrobacter freundii can cause diarrhea and possibly extraintestinal infections. C. diversus may cause meningitis in newborns. They are biochemically similar to Klebsiella and can cause opportunistic infections of the urinary tract.

Is Citrobacter Koseri contagious?

Citrobacter koseri is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacillus. It is a facultative anaerobe capable of aerobic respiration. It is motile via peritrichous flagella. It is a member of the family of Enterobacteriaceae.

Citrobacter koseri
Specialty Infectious disease

What antibiotics treat Citrobacter Koseri?


koseri mandates antimicrobial therapy based on the sensitivity of the pathogen microorganism. Various types of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections.

How do you get Citrobacter?

In patient with Citrobacter infections, the bacteria can be transmitted vertically from mother or horizontally from carriers or other hospital sources (14). The infection may occur as sporadic cases or nosocomial outbreaks.

Is Citrobacter Gram positive or negative?

The Citrobacter species, including Citrobacter freundii, are aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Citrobacter freundii are long rod-shaped bacteria typically 1-5 μm in length [1]. Most C. freundii cells are surrounded by many flagella used to move about, but a few are non-motile.

What is Citrobacter Koseri UTI?

C. koseri is a gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting rod that is often part of normal human flora. It causes infections almost exclusively in neonates and infants—primarily meningitis—and in immune-compromised hosts.4 In the adult patient, the urinary tract is one of the most common sites of infection by Citrobacter.

Where does Citrobacter come from?

These bacteria can be found almost everywhere in soil, water, wastewater, etc. They can also be found in the human intestine. They are rarely the source of illnesses, except for infections of the urinary tract and infant meningitis and sepsis.

Where can Citrobacter Freundii be found?


freundii cells generally have several flagella used for locomotion, but some do not and are non-motile. C. freundii is a soil organism, but can also be found in water, sewage, food and in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. The genus Citrobacter was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen.

Is Citrobacter h2s positive?

freundii is intrinsically resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam and cephalosporins. They can resemble Salmonella on agar media due to production of H2S by both genera. They are also citrate positive, however, only Citrobacter is positive for ONPG.

How is Citrobacter Koseri treated?

Various types of antibiotics, including amino- glycosides carbapenems, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol and quinolones, are used for the treatment of C. koseri infections. Treatment options can be monotherapy, with agents potentially active against Citrobacter spp. or combination therapy [8].

Does all Enterobacteriaceae ferment glucose?

The Enterobacteriaceae are gram-negative, non–spore-forming, facultative anaerobes that ferment glucose and other sugars, reduce nitrate to nitrite, and produce catalase but (with the exception of Plesiomonas) do not produce oxidase. Most are motile by virtue of peritrichous (as opposed to polar) flagella.

Is e Aerogenes Gram positive or negative?

Klebsiella aerogenes, previously known as Enterobacter aerogenes, is a Gram-negative, oxidase negative, catalase positive, citrate positive, indole negative, rod-shaped bacterium. The bacterium is approximately 1-3 microns in length, and is capable of motility via peritrichous flagella.

Where is Proteus vulgaris found?


Proteus vulgaris. Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole+ and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.

Is Citrobacter urease positive?

Several species of Enterobacteriaceae, including Proteus, Klebsiella, and some Citrobacter species, as well as some Haemophilus species and several other bacteria, fungi, and yeast species produce the enzyme urease. A notable exception to this is Yersinia enterocolitica, which is urease-positive.

Is Klebsiella Gram positive or negative?

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It appears as a mucoid lactose fermenter on MacConkey agar.