Why are alcohols and phenols soluble in water?

Asked By: Maika Diefenthal | Last Updated: 4th June, 2020
Category: science chemistry
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Alcohols : Alcohols are soluble in water because they form intermolecular hydrogen bonding with water molecules. Phenols : Phenols also form hydrogen bonds with water and hence are soluble in water.

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Also asked, why are phenols less soluble in water than other alcohols?

As the hydrocarbon part of an alcohol gets larger, the alcohol becomes less water soluble and more soluble in nonpolar solvents. Phenol is somewhat soluble in water. It acts as a weak acid in water, so a solution of phenol will be slightly acidic.

Similarly, are phenols soluble in water? Water

Regarding this, why are alcohols soluble in water?

Alcohols are soluble in water. This is due to the hydroxyl group in the alcohol which is able to form hydrogen bons with water molecules. Alcohols with a smaller hydrocarbon chain are very soluble. As the length of the hydrocarbon chain increases, the solubility in water decreases.

Why are large alcohols not soluble in water?

The lower solubility of bigger alcohols All you get in place of those original hydrogen bonds are van der Waals dispersion forces between the water and the hydrocarbon "tails". These attractions are much weaker. That means that you don't get enough energy back to compensate for the hydrogen bonds being broken.

37 Related Question Answers Found

Do alcohols react with NaOH?

Alcohols do not undergo such base-induced elimination reactions and are, in fact, often used as solvents for such reactions. When an alcohol is treated with sodium hydroxide, the following acid-base equilibrium occurs. Most alcohols are slightly weaker acids than water so the left side is favored.

How are phenols and alcohols similar?

Phenols are stronger acids than alcohols, but they are still quite weak acids. A typical alcohol has a pKa of 16–17. In contrast, phenol is 10 million times more acidic: its pKa is 10. Phenol is more acidic than cyclohexanol and acyclic alcohols because the phenoxide ion is more stable than the alkoxide ion.

Is water soluble in ethanol?

Many polar molecular substances are soluble in both water and hexane. For example, ethanol is miscible with both water and hexane. The following generalization is helpful: Substances composed of small polar molecules, such as acetone and ethanol, are usually soluble in water.

Is phenol an acid or base?

A hydrogen ion can break away from the -OH group and transfer to a base. For example, in solution in water: Phenol is a very weak acid and the position of equilibrium lies well to the left. Phenol can lose a hydrogen ion because the phenoxide ion formed is stabilised to some extent.

Why Phenol is soluble in NaOH?


Phenol is more soluble in NaOH than in water is because phenol is slightly acidic. making the sodium phenoxide extra stable. to form a Hydronium ion (H30). phenol with sodium is a slower reaction because phenol is a weak acid.

Which alcohols are soluble in water?

Because of the strength of the attraction of the OH group, first three alcohols (methanol, ethanol and propanol) are completely miscible. They dissolve in water in any amount. Starting with the four-carbon butanol the solubility of alcohols is starting to decrease.

Is a phenol a secondary alcohol?

If this carbon is bonded to two other carbons, it is a secondary (2o) alcohol. If it is bonded to three other carbons, it is a tertiary (3o) alcohol. When the hydroxyl group is bonded directly to a benzene ring, the compound is classified as a phenol.

Is cyclohexanol soluble in NaOH?

Both phenol and cyclohexanol are only slightly soluble in water. Account for the fact that phenol dissolves in aqueous sodium hydroxide but cyclohexanol does not.

Are all alcohols soluble in water?

Alcohols are soluble in water. This is due to the hydroxyl group in the alcohol which is able to form hydrogen bons with water molecules. Alcohols with a smaller hydrocarbon chain are very soluble. As the length of the hydrocarbon chain increases, the solubility in water decreases.

Is glycerin miscible in water?


Glycerol (/ˈgl?s?r?l/; also called glycerine or glycerin) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. Owing to the presence of three hydroxyl groups, glycerol is miscible with water and is hygroscopic in nature.

Why is oil not soluble in water?

Many substances do not dissolve in water and that is because they are non-polar and do not interact well with water molecules. A common example is oil and water. Oil contains molecules that are non-polar, thus they do not dissolve in water.

Is ethanol polar or nonpolar?

Ethanol is a very polar molecule due to its hydroxyl (OH) group, with the high electronegativity of oxygen allowing hydrogen bonding to take place with other molecules. Ethanol therefore attracts polar and ionic molecules. The ethyl (C2H5) group in ethanol is non-polar. Ethanol therefore attracts non-polar molecules.

Why are esters insoluble in water?

Esters can form hydrogen bonds through their oxygen atoms to the hydrogen atoms of water molecules. Thus, esters are slightly soluble in water. However, because esters do not have a hydrogen atom to form a hydrogen bond to an oxygen atom of water, they are less soluble than carboxylic acids.

Is ethanol more polar than water?

The bigger the non-polar hydrocarbon part of their molecule (the part which isn't OH), the less polar they are: water is more polar than methanol, which is more polar than ethanol (drinking alcohol), which is more polar than isopropyl alcohol (some kinds of rubbing alcohol).

Is water polar or nonpolar?


Water (H2O) is polar because of the bent shape of the molecule. The reason the shape of the molecule isn't linear and nonpolar (e.g., like CO2) is because of the difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and oxygen.

What are simple phenols somewhat soluble in water?

Solubility in water
Phenol is somewhat soluble in water because of its ability to form hydrogen bonds with the water.

What is the color of phenol?

Phenol
Names
Appearance Transparent crystalline solid
Odor Sweet and tarry
Density 1.07 g/cm3
Melting point 40.5 °C (104.9 °F; 313.6 K)