What is the use of nroff and troff?

Asked By: Jesusita Curco | Last Updated: 17th February, 2020
Category: technology and computing operating systems
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nroff and troff are UNIX commands (and the utilities that support them) for formatting text files for printing. (There are other UNIX commands for initiating printing.) nroff is designed for formatting output for line printers and letter-quality printers. troff is designed for formatting output for typesetters.

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Besides, what is Troff?

f/, short for typesetter roff) is the major component of a document processing system developed by AT&T Corporation for the Unix operating system. troff features commands to designate fonts, spacing, paragraphs, margins, footnotes and more.

Secondly, how do I use Unix to find a grep command? The grep command searches through the file, looking for matches to the pattern specified. To use it type grep , then the pattern we're searching for and finally the name of the file (or files) we're searching in. The output is the three lines in the file that contain the letters 'not'.

Hereof, when a program takes its input from another program?

When a program takes its input from another program, performs some operation on that input, and writes the result to the standard output (which may be piped to yet another program), it is referred to as a filter. One of the most common uses of filters is to modify output.

What are the two modes of VI editor?

The UNIX vi editor is a full screen editor and has two modes of operation:

  • Command mode commands which cause action to be taken on the file, and.
  • Insert mode in which entered text is inserted into the file.

20 Related Question Answers Found

What is filter command?

Filters are commands that always read their input from 'stdin' and write their output to 'stdout'. Users can use file redirection and 'pipes' to setup 'stdin' and 'stdout' as per their need. Pipes are used to direct the 'stdout' stream of one command to the 'stdin' stream of the next command.

How do you use Xargs?

While echo is the default command xargs executes, you can explicitly specify any other command. For example, you can pass the find command along with its '-name' option as an argument to xargs, and then pass the name of the file (or type of files) you want to find to search as input through stdin.

What is [email protected] in bash?

bash filename runs the commands saved in a file. [email protected] refers to all of a shell script's command-line arguments. $1 , $2 , etc., refer to the first command-line argument, the second command-line argument, etc. Letting users decide what files to process is more flexible and more consistent with built-in Unix commands.

What is piping command?

A pipe is a form of redirection (transfer of standard output to some other destination) that is used in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems to send the output of one command/program/process to another command/program/process for further processing. You can make it do so by using the pipe character '|'.

How do you pipe a file?


List:
  1. command > output.txt. The standard output stream will be redirected to the file only, it will not be visible in the terminal.
  2. command >> output.txt.
  3. command 2> output.txt.
  4. command 2>> output.txt.
  5. command &> output.txt.
  6. command &>> output.txt.
  7. command | tee output.txt.
  8. command | tee -a output.txt.

Is used to know who is logged in to the computer?

w command is used to show logged-in user names and what they are doing. The information will be read from /var/run/utmp file. The output of the w command contains the following columns: User's machine number or tty number.

Is pipe a system call?

Pipe System Call
pipe() is a system call that facilitates inter-process communication. It opens a pipe, which is an area of main memory that is treated as a "virtual file". The pipe can be used by the creating process, as well as all its child processes, for reading and writing.

What is use of sed command?

Sed command or Stream Editor is very powerful utility offered by Linux/Unix systems. It is mainly used for text substitution , find & replace but it can also perform other text manipulations like insertion, deletion, search etc.

How do I grep multiple files?

To search multiple files with the grep command, insert the filenames you want to search, separated with a space character. The terminal prints the name of every file that contains the matching lines, and the actual lines that include the required string of characters. You can append as many filenames as needed.

How do you kill a process?


To kill a process use the kill command. Use the ps command if you need to find the PID of a process. Always try to kill a process with a simple kill command. This is the cleanest way to kill a process and has the same effect as cancelling a process.

What is awk used for?

Awk is a utility that enables a programmer to write tiny but effective programs in the form of statements that define text patterns that are to be searched for in each line of a document and the action that is to be taken when a match is found within a line. Awk is mostly used for pattern scanning and processing.

Where can I find TXT file in Linux?

Use find to search for a file or directory on your file system. Using the -exec flag, files can be found and immediately processed within the same command.

Basic Examples.
Command Description
find . -name testfile.txt Find a file called testfile.txt in current and sub-directories.

How do I list hidden files?

Select the Start button, then select Control Panel > Appearance and Personalization. Select Folder Options, then select the View tab. Under Advanced settings, select Show hidden files, folders, and drives, and then select OK.

Why is grep so fast?

GNU grep is fast because it AVOIDS LOOKING AT EVERY INPUT BYTE. GNU grep is fast because it EXECUTES VERY FEW INSTRUCTIONS FOR EACH BYTE that it does look at. GNU grep uses raw Unix input system calls and avoids copying data after reading it. Moreover, GNU grep AVOIDS BREAKING THE INPUT INTO LINES.

What does grep command do in Linux?


The grep command is used to search text or searches the given file for lines containing a match to the given strings or words. By default, grep displays the matching lines. Use grep to search for lines of text that match one or many regular expressions, and outputs only the matching lines.

What does grep return if not found?

If grep fails to find a match it will exit 1 , so $? will be 1 . grep will always return 0 if successful.