What is the pathophysiology of a fracture?

Asked By: Egor Mcnamar | Last Updated: 24th March, 2020
Category: medical health bone and joint conditions
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Fractures refer to all bony disruptions, ranging from a small hairline fracture to a bone broken into many fragments. Pathological fractures occur as a result of underlying disease such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis, osteomalacia or a tumour resulting in weakness of the bone.

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Considering this, what is pathophysiology of hip fracture?

Hip fracture can occur at any age. Common causes include severe impact (e.g., a car accident), falls, and weak bones or bone loss (osteoporosis). Persons whose bones are weak may suffer a hip fracture when attempting to support their weight on one leg or when moving the hips in a twisting motion.

Likewise, what is the pathophysiology of osteoporosis? PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF OSTEOPOROSIS. Osteoporosis is defined elsewhere in this issue as a condition of skeletal fragility characterized by reduced bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in risk of fracture. Low bone mass is thus visualized as a risk factor for fracture.

Thereof, what is the pathophysiology of a fractured femur?

Pathophysiology. The femur is the largest bone in the human body. The characteristic deformity following a femur fracture is caused by the strong lower extremity muscles which are attached to the femur. The proximal fragment is held in flexion and abduction.

What is pathological fracture?

A pathologic fracture is a broken bone that's caused by a disease, rather than an injury. Some conditions weaken your bones, which makes them more likely to break. Everyday things, such as coughing, stepping out of a car, or bending over can fracture a bone that's been weakened by an illness.

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What is life expectancy after hip fracture?

Some reports show that up to 50% of patients with hip fracture die within six months and many of those who survive do not recover their baseline independence and function. In recent decades the increase in life expectancy after 60 years of age has led to an exponential growth in hip fractures.

How is hip fracture diagnosed?

Doctors use X-rays to diagnose a broken hip. You may need another test if your doctor thinks that you have a fracture but can't see it on an X-ray. You might have a test such as: An MRI, which gives better images of bones and soft tissues.

What is a closed hip fracture?

A closed fracture is a broken bone that does not penetrate the skin. This is an important distinction because when a broken bone penetrates the skin (an open fracture) there is a need for immediate treatment, and an operation is often required to clean the area of the fracture.

What is a cracked bone?

A fracture is the medical term for a broken bone. Fractures are common; the average person has two during a lifetime. If the bone is in many pieces, it is called a comminuted fracture. In a non-displaced fracture, the bone cracks either part or all of the way through, but does move and maintains its proper alignment.

What is an osteoporotic hip fracture?

Pathogenesis of osteoporotic hip fractures. Osteoporosis is characterized late in the course of the disease by an increased risk of fracture, particularly in the elderly. It occurs in both sexes, affecting approximately 8 million women and 2 million men aged > or = 50 years (1).

Why are broken hips deadly?

Combined with the trauma of a fracture and surgery, an existing health condition may significantly increase the risk of death. Death after a hip fracture may also be related to additional complications of the fracture, such as infections, internal bleeding, stroke or heart failure.

What are the complications of hip fracture?

If a hip fracture keeps you immobile for a long time, the complications can include:
  • Blood clots in your legs or lungs.
  • Bedsores.
  • Urinary tract infection.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Further loss of muscle mass, increasing your risk of falls and injury.

What are the causes of hip fracture?

Potential causes of broken hips include:
  • falling on a hard surface or from a great height.
  • blunt trauma to the hip, such as from a car crash.
  • diseases such as osteoporosis, which is a condition that causes a loss of bone tissue.
  • obesity, which leads to too much pressure on the hip bones.

How is a fractured femur treated?

Femoral Shaft Fractures
The treatment almost always requires surgery. The most common procedure involves the insertion of a metal pole (known as an intramedullary rod) into the center of the thigh bone. 3? This helps reconnect the two ends which are then secured with screws above and below the fracture.

What is a metaphyseal fracture?

Metaphyseal fractures are also known as corner fractures, bucket handle fractures or metaphyseal lesions. It refers to an injury to the metaphysis which is the growing plate at each end of a long bone (such as tibia, femur, etc).

What is a femur fracture?

Orthopedic. A femoral fracture is a bone fracture that involves the femur. They are typically sustained in high-impact trauma, such as car crashes, due to the large amount of force needed to break the bone.

What is a fracture of the femoral neck?

A femoral neck fracture is one type of hip fracture. This injury occurs just below the ball of the ball-and-socket hip joint, the region of the thigh bone called the femoral neck. A femoral neck fracture disconnects the ball from the rest of the thigh bone (femur).

What does incomplete fracture mean?

An incomplete, or greenstick, fracture occurs when the bone cracks and bends but does not completely break; when the bone does break into separate pieces, the condition is called a complete fracture.

What is a Smith fracture of the radius?

Smith's fracture. A Smith's fracture, is a fracture of the distal radius. It is caused by a direct blow to the dorsal forearm or falling onto flexed wrists, as opposed to a Colles' fracture which occurs as a result of falling onto wrists in extension.

Where is the proximal femoral diaphysis?

They can occur anywhere between the joint surface of the femoral head and the upper shaft (proximal diaphysis) of the femur.

Why is the neck of the femur a common site for fracture?

They are more common in women. A femoral neck fracture can tear the blood vessels and cut off the blood supply to the femoral head. If the blood supply to the femoral head is lost, the bone tissue will die (a process called avascular necrosis), leading to the eventual collapse of the bone.

When can I walk after femur surgery?

Most people who receive specialized treatment for a femur fracture are admitted in a long-term nursing or rehabilitation facility. Full recovery can take anywhere from 12 weeks to 12 months. Yet, many patients can start walking much earlier with the help of a physical therapist.