What is the importance of the sugar phosphate backbone?

Asked By: Herman Sandvos | Last Updated: 13th June, 2020
Category: science genetics
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The sugar-phosphate backbone, as mentioned, is an important component of DNA's double helix structure. The structure of DNA is tied to its function. The pairing of the nitrogenous bases that are connected to the sugar-phosphate backbone play a key role in the ability of DNA to store and transfer genetic information.

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Hereof, why is the sugar phosphate backbone on the outside?

This is done by the sugar phosphate backbone twisting around itself in a coil. The purpose of this twisting is to protect the bases inside it, and prevent them from being damaged by the environment. DNA is very stable due to rungs of “ladder” is hydrophobic and phosphate sugar backbone of DNA is negatively charged.

Secondly, what is the importance of phosphate in DNA? A phosphate group is just a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atoms, but it has many important roles. Along with sugars and bases, it makes up nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA. As part of energy carriers, like ATP, it provides energy for moving our muscles.

Beside this, what holds the sugar phosphate backbone together?

Explanation: The bond formed between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of an adjacent nucleotide is a covalent bond. A covalent bond is the sharing of electrons between atoms. A covalent bond is stronger than a hydrogen bond (hydrogen bonds hold pairs of nucleotides together on opposite strands in DNA).

What is backbone in DNA?

The backbone of a DNA molecule consists of the phosphate groups and the deoxyribose sugars, whereas the base region of the DNA molecule consists of the nitrogenous bases; therefore, the backbone of DNA is made up of phosphate groups and pentose sugars. Adenine is part of the base region of the molecule.

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How is the backbone of DNA held together?

DNA has a double helix structure. The outer edges are formed by alternating deoxyribose sugar molecules and phosphate groups, which make up the sugar-phosphate backbone. The two strands run in opposite directions to form the double helix. The strands are held together by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions.

How a sugar phosphate backbone is built?

This backbone consists of alternating phosphate and sugar groups, with the sugar molecule of one nucleotide linking to the phosphate group of the adjacent nucleotide. The rungs connecting the two sugar-phosphate strands are created by pairs of nitrogenous bases.

Where is RNA found?

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is found mainly in the nucleus of the cell, while Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is found mainly in the cytoplasm of the cell although it is usually synthesized in the nucleus.

What is the shape of a DNA molecule called?

Basic Structure of DNA
It is a chain of chemical building blocks called nucleotides that are a combination of a nitrogen base, a sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group. The DNA molecule is shaped like a ladder that is twisted into a coiled configuration called a double helix.

Where does DNA replication occur?

DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the nucleus of eukaryotes. Regardless of where DNA replication occurs, the basic process is the same.

Is thymine a sugar?

Like the other nitrogenous components of nucleic acids, thymine is part of thymidine, a corresponding nucleoside (a structural unit composed of a nitrogen compound and a sugar), in which it is chemically linked with the sugar deoxyribose.

What type of bond connects sugar and phosphate?

In DNA and RNA, the phosphodiester bond is the linkage between the 3' carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 5' carbon atom of another, deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA. Strong covalent bonds form between the phosphate group and two 5-carbon ring carbohydrates (pentoses) over two ester bonds.

What bond holds nucleotides together?

Nucleotides are linked together by the formation of a phosphodiester bond which is formed between the 3' -OH group of one sugar molecule, and the 5' phosphate group on the adjacent sugar molecule. This results in a loss of a molecule of water, making this a condensation reaction, also called a dehydration synthesis.

What holds phosphate and deoxyribose together?

A DNA molecule is composed of two strands. Each strand is composed of nucleotides bonded together covalently between the phosphate group of one and the deoxyribose sugar of the next. From this backbone extend the bases. The bases of one strand bond to the bases of the second strand with hydrogen bonds.

Are phosphodiester bonds strong or weak?

The nucleotides forming each DNA strand are connected by noncovalent bonds, called hydrogen bonds. Considered individually, hydrogen bonds are much weaker than a single covalent bond, such as a phosphodiester bond.

What type of bond holds nitrogenous bases together?

The nitrogen bases are held together by hydrogen bonds: adenine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds; cytosine and guanine form three hydrogen bonds.

Who discovered DNA first?

Many people believe that American biologist James Watson and English physicist Francis Crick discovered DNA in the 1950s. In reality, this is not the case. Rather, DNA was first identified in the late 1860s by Swiss chemist Friedrich Miescher.

Is adenine an amine?

Adenine is a purine nucleobase with an amine group attached to the carbon at position 6. Adenine is a purine base. Adenine is found in both DNA and RNA. Adenine is a fundamental component of adenine nucleotides.

What are the 4 nitrogen bases?

The four nitrogen bases found in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Each of these bases are often abbreviated a single letter: A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), T (thymine).

Why is DNA called the blueprint of life?

DNA is called the blueprint of life because it contains the instructions needed for an organism to grow, develop, survive and reproduce. DNA does this by controlling protein synthesis. Proteins do most of the work in cells, and are the basic unit of structure and function in the cells of organisms.

What are the three parts of Chargaff's rule?

Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of any organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine should be equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine should be equal to thymine. This pattern is found in both strands of the DNA.