What is radiation BBC Bitesize?

Asked By: Kontxi Utton | Last Updated: 2nd March, 2020
Category: science chemistry
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Radiation is described as the transfer of heat energy by electromagnetic waves without involving particles. Convection is described as the movement of particles of gases and liquids away from a heat source to form currents.

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Consequently, what is alpha radiation GCSE?

Alpha radiation consists of alpha particles. An alpha particle is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom, which comprises two protons and two neutrons .

Also, how does radiation happen? Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves (electromagnetic radiation) or high-speed particles (particulate radiation). Particulate radiation happens when an unstable (or radioactive) atom disintegrates. Electromagnetic (EM) radiation, on the other hand, has no mass and travels in waves.

Also question is, how does radiation work Bitesize?

When visible light and high frequency infrared radiation are absorbed by the surface of the Earth, the planet's internal energy increases and the surface gets hotter. Some of this infrared radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere back out into space, and some is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

What is radioactivity and why is it dangerous?

Radiation is dangerous because it can ionize, which breaks apart chemical bonds. If that happens enough inside a living cell, then the cell will be killed. With enough broken chemical “parts” they just stop working.

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How many types of radiation are there?

Now, let's look at the different kinds of radiation. There are four major types of radiation: alpha, beta, neutrons, and electromagnetic waves such as gamma rays.

What can stop radiation?

Gamma Rays and X-Rays
Despite their ability to penetrate other materials, in general, neither gamma rays nor x-rays have the ability to make anything radioactive. Several feet of concrete or a few inches of dense material (such as lead) are able to block these types of radiation.

How does alpha radiation work?

Alpha radiation occurs when the nucleus of an atom becomes unstable (the ratio of neutrons to protons is too low) and alpha particles are emitted to restore balance. Alpha decay occurs in elements with high atomic numbers, such as uranium, radium, and thorium.

What are the three types of radiation?

Three types of radioation - Alpha, Beta, Gamma. There are three primary types of radiation: Alpha - these are fast moving helium atoms. They have high energy, typically in the MeV range, but due to their large mass, they are stopped by just a few inches of air, or a piece of paper.

What can radiation penetrate?

Alpha radiation is absorbed by the thickness of the skin or by a few centimetres of air. Beta radiation is more penetrating than alpha radiation. It can pass through the skin, but it is absorbed by a few centimetres of body tissue or a few millimetres of aluminium. It can easily penetrate body tissue.

How far does radiation travel?

It depends on the energy of the radiation and the size (or activity) of the source. Distance is a prime concern when dealing with gamma rays, because they can travel at the speed of light. Alpha particles can only travel a few inches and beta particles around 10 feet.

What are the properties of radiation?

Properties of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation: Speed and Energy
Average Energy Relative Ionising ability
Alpha 5MeV High
Beta High (varies hugely) Medium
Gamma Very high (again, varies hugely) Low

Why is alpha radiation dangerous?

If the radioactive source is inside the body, perhaps after being swallowed or breathed in: alpha radiation is the most dangerous because it is easily absorbed by cells. beta and gamma radiation are not as dangerous because they are less likely to be absorbed by a cell and will usually just pass right through it.

Is a good absorber of radiation a good emitter?

Prior to Kirchhoff's studies, it was known that for total heat radiation, the ratio of emissive power to absorptive ratio was the same for all bodies emitting and absorbing thermal radiation in thermodynamic equilibrium. This means that a good absorber is a good emitter. Naturally, a good reflector is a poor absorber.

What is the least Ionising radiation?

Radioactive substances give out radiation all of the time. There are three types of nuclear radiation: alpha, beta and gamma. Alpha is the least penetrating, while gamma is the most penetrating. Nonetheless, all three are ionising radiation: they can knock electrons out of atoms and form charged particles.

Why is Black a good emitter and absorber?

The name "black body" is given because it absorbs radiation in all frequencies, not because it only absorbs.) It is an ideal emitter: at every frequency, it emits as much or more thermal radiative energy as any other body at the same temperature.

What is an emitter of radiation?

Infrared radiation is the transfer of energy from one place to another by an electromagnetic wave. All objects emit and absorb infrared radiation. Dark, matt surfaces are good absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation. Light, shiny surfaces are poor absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation.

Why is Ionising radiation dangerous?

Why is ionizing radiation dangerous? When atoms in living cells become ionized one of three things usually happen – the cell dies, the cell repairs itself, or the cell mutates incorrectly and can become cancerous. Not all cells are affected by ionizing radiation in the same way.

What is gamma radiation made of?

A gamma ray, or gamma radiation (symbol γ or. ), is a penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei. It consists of the shortest wavelength electromagnetic waves and so imparts the highest photon energy.

What type of radiation is emitted by uranium?

Uranium emits alpha particles and gamma rays.