What is group thinking in social psychology?

Asked By: Chunsheng Kelnhofer | Last Updated: 12th May, 2020
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Groupthink is a term first used in 1972 by social psychologist Irving L. Janis that refers to a psychological phenomenon in which people strive for consensus within a group. In many cases, people will set aside their own personal beliefs or adopt the opinion of the rest of the group.

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Correspondingly, what is group thinking in psychology?

Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Furthermore, groupthink can produce dehumanizing actions against the "outgroup".

Likewise, what causes groupthink? Causes of Groupthink. There are several main causes of groupthink. These include group cohesiveness, overall group isolation, group leadership, and decision-making stress. High levels of cohesiveness decrease the amount of verbal dissension within a tight group, due to interpersonal pressure to conform.

Also know, what is groupthink examples?

Groupthink is a phenomenon when a group of people get together and start to think collectively with one mind.

For example, some real world examples of groupthink include:

  • The Bay of Pigs invasion.
  • The bombing of Pearl Harbor.
  • The collapse of Swissair.
  • The mass resignation of the Major League Umpires Association.

What would best describe the concept of groupthink?

Groupthink is a theory dedicated to understanding the decision-making process in small groups. Among the criteria for evaluating a theory, four are especially relevant for discussion: heurism, scope, testability, and test of time.

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What is Deindividuation in psychology?

Deindividuation is a concept in social psychology that is generally thought of as the loss of self-awareness in groups, although this is a matter of contention (resistance) (see below). Sociologists also study the phenomenon of deindividuation, but the level of analysis is somewhat different.

What are the 8 symptoms of groupthink?

Irving Janis described the eight symptoms of groupthink:
  • Invulnerability. Members of the group share an illusion of invulnerability that creates excessive optimism and encourages taking abnormal risks.
  • Rationale.
  • Morality.
  • Stereotypes.
  • Pressure.
  • Self-censorship.
  • Illusion of Unanimity.
  • Mind Guards.

Why is groupthink important?

Groupthink can have some benefits. When working with a large number of people, it often allows the group to make decisions, complete tasks, and finish projects quickly and efficiently. The suppression of individual opinions and creative thought can lead to poor decision-making and inefficient problem-solving.

What are the dangers of group think?

Groupthink can lead collective rationalization, lack of personal accountability and pressure to acquiesce. Groupthink is a common factor in bad decision-making and serious ethical breaches.

Why is groupthink bad?


Groupthink leads to bad decisions because it encourages members of the group to ignore possible problems with the group's decisions and discount the opinions of outsiders. It influences decisions most when there are no clear rules for decision making.

What are the characteristics of groupthink?

Characteristics of Groupthink
Rationalization of decisions to minimize objections. Belief in the absolute goodness of the group. Intense dislike of outsiders – stereotyped and misleading portrayals of outside members and those who have left the group.

What is ingroup bias in psychology?

Ingroup bias, sometimes known as in-group favoritism, in-group–out-group bias or intergroup bias, refers to a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, allocation of resources and many other ways.

How do you identify groupthink?

Symptoms of Groupthink
  1. Rationalization: This is when team members convince themselves that despite evidence to the contrary, the decision or alternative being presented is the best one.
  2. Peer Pressure:
  3. Complacency:
  4. Moral High Ground:
  5. Stereotyping:
  6. Censorship:
  7. Illusion of Unanimity:

Why does groupthink occur?

Groupthink occurs when a group of well-intentioned people make irrational or non-optimal decisions spurred by the urge to conform or the discouragement of dissent. In the interest of making a decision that furthers their group cause, members may ignore any ethical or moral consequences.

What is the best example of groupthink?


Perhaps one of the most well-known examples of groupthink can be found in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

What is groupthink in speech?

GROUPTHINK. * The tendency of highly cohesive groups not to evaluate thoroughly and critically all aspects of a decision or problem. Systematic thinking using evidence, reasoning, and logic to promote soundness.

How can you prevent groupthink?

6 Ways to Avoid GroupThink
  1. Plan for it. Art Petty, founder and principal of the Art Petty Group, says any risk plan should include a way to monitor and reduce emerging groupthink.
  2. Encourage debate.
  3. Look for different personalities.
  4. Acknowledge biases in data.
  5. Reach out.
  6. Know that speed can kill.

Can groupthink be positive?

Groupthink is essentially a psychological phenomenon wherein a group of people is looking for common harmony and desire. If the purpose is positive and the end result is positive, it is called a positive groupthink while if the outcome is negative, it becomes negative groupthink.

What is Groupthink in the workplace?

The influence of groupthink on workplace change is largely negative. Groupthink occurs when a group performs cohesively and makes decisions in a manner that doesn't encourage individual responsibility. The impact of groupthink dictates how a team member reacts to stress, problems, fresh ideas, and participation.

What is group thing?


Groupthink is a phenomenon that occurs when a group of individuals reaches a consensus without critical reasoning or evaluation of the consequences or alternatives. This desire creates a dynamic within a group whereby creativity and individuality tend to be stifled in order to avoid conflict.

What does social loafing mean?

Social loafing describes the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they are part of a group. Because all members of the group are pooling their effort to achieve a common goal, each member of the group contributes less than they would if they were individually responsible.

What is groupthink and how can it affect an organization?

Groupthink—the tendency of groups to make decisions that preserve the status quo rather than take dissenting opinions into account—can be toxic to teams and organizations. It can stifle innovation and make employees feel pressured to conform. In most cases, the consequences of groupthink aren't nearly so serious.