What is DNA translation and transcription?

Asked By: Purificacio Raj | Last Updated: 6th February, 2020
Category: science genetics
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Large stretches of DNA in the human genome are transcribed but do not code for proteins. The process by which DNA is copied to RNA is called transcription, and that by which RNA is used to produce proteins is called translation.

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Hereof, what is translation in DNA?

Translation is the process that takes the information passed from DNA as messenger RNA and turns it into a series of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds. The ribosome is the site of this action, just as RNA polymerase was the site of mRNA synthesis.

Secondly, what is the role of DNA in transcription? Transcription is a process of making an RNA strand from a DNA template, and the RNA molecule that is made is called transcript. Messenger RNA(mRNA), which carries the genetic information from DNA and is used as a template for protein synthesis.

Similarly, it is asked, what is the process of DNA transcription?

Transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). The newly formed mRNA copies of the gene then serve as blueprints for protein synthesis during the process of translation.

What comes first translation or transcription?

The first step is transcription in which the sequence of one gene is replicated in an RNA molecule. The second step is translation in which the RNA molecule serves as a code for the formation of an amino-acid chain (a polypeptide).

38 Related Question Answers Found

What are the 3 stages of translation?

Translation of an mRNA molecule by the ribosome occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. During initiation, the small ribosomal subunit binds to the start of the mRNA sequence.

What is the purpose of DNA translation?

DNA translation is the term used to describe the process of protein synthesis by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic reticulum. The genetic information in DNA is used as a basis to create messenger RNA (mRNA) by transcription. Single stranded mRNA then acts as a template during translation.

What are the steps in DNA translation?

Translation is a process by which the genetic code contained within an mRNA molecule is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. It occurs in the cytoplasm following transcription and, like transcription, has three stages: initiation, elongation and termination.

What are the four steps of translation?

Translation happens in four stages: activation (make ready), initiation (start), elongation (make longer) and termination (stop). These terms describe the growth of the amino acid chain (polypeptide). Amino acids are brought to ribosomes and assembled into proteins.

What is the process of translation?


Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes.

What is the importance of translation?

Translation is necessary for the spread of information, knowledge, and ideas. It is absolutely necessary for effective and empathetic communication between different cultures. Translation, therefore, is critical for social harmony and peace.

What is the product of translation?

The molecule that results from translation is protein -- or more precisely, translation produces short sequences of amino acids called peptides that get stitched together and become proteins. During translation, little protein factories called ribosomes read the messenger RNA sequences.

What is mRNA made of?

Messenger RNA (mRNA) Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to one of the DNA strands of a gene. The mRNA is an RNA version of the gene that leaves the cell nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm where proteins are made.

What are the 3 basic steps of transcription?

Transcription occurs in the three steps—initiation, elongation, and termination—all shown here.
  • Step 1: Initiation. Initiation is the beginning of transcription.
  • Step 2: Elongation. Elongation is the addition of nucleotides to the mRNA strand.
  • Step 3: Termination.

What is the mean of transcription?


Transcription is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. This copy, called a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, leaves the cell nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it directs the synthesis of the protein, which it encodes. Here is a more complete definition of transcription: Transcription.

What is the purpose of transcription?

Describe the process and purpose of transcription. The purpose of transcription is to produce an mRNA copy of a gene, to allow the genetic information to pass out of the nucleus, through the nuclear pores where it can be used to assemble a protein.

What are proteins made of?

Proteins are made up of smaller building blocks called amino acids, joined together in chains. There are 20 different amino acids. Some proteins are just a few amino acids long, while others are made up of several thousands. These chains of amino acids fold up in complex ways, giving each protein a unique 3D shape.

What are the 6 steps of transcription?

Key Takeaways: Steps of Transcription
Transcription is the name given to the process in which DNA is copied to make a complementary strand of RNA. RNA then undergoes translation to make proteins. The major steps of transcription are initiation, promoter clearance, elongation, and termination.

Which strand of DNA is transcribed into mRNA?


The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's synthesis through translation.

What is the function of tRNA?

transfer RNA / tRNA
Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence into a protein. tRNAs function at specific sites in the ribosome during translation, which is a process that synthesizes a protein from an mRNA molecule.

Where does the process of transcription start?

Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to a promoter sequence near the beginning of a gene (directly or through helper proteins). RNA polymerase uses one of the DNA strands (the template strand) as a template to make a new, complementary RNA molecule. Transcription ends in a process called termination.