What does insulin independent mean?

Asked By: Dieynaba Tuboltsev | Last Updated: 9th May, 2020
Category: medical health diabetes
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Insulin-independent glucose transport regulates insulin sensitivity. GLUT1 is insulin-independent and is widely distributed in different tissues. GLUT4 is insulin-dependent and is responsible for the majority of glucose transport into muscle and adipose cells in anabolic conditions.

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Besides, which organs are insulin independent?

Sites of Insulin Action and Manifestations of Insulin Resistance

  • Muscle. Glucose uptake into muscle is essentially insulin dependent via GLUT 4, and muscle accounts for about 60–70% of whole-body insulin mediated uptake.
  • Adipose Tissue.
  • Liver.
  • Endothelium and Vasculature.
  • Brain.
  • Pancreas.
  • Pituitary.
  • Kidney.

Also, what is the difference between insulin dependent and non insulin dependent diabetes? Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin.

Likewise, can glucose enter cells without insulin?

Without insulin, cells are unable to use glucose as fuel and they will start malfunctioning. Extra glucose that is not used by the cells will be converted and stored as fat so it can be used to provide energy when glucose levels are too low.

Why is glut4 insulin dependent?

GLUT4 is the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found primarily in adipose tissues and striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac). At the cell surface, GLUT4 permits the facilitated diffusion of circulating glucose down its concentration gradient into muscle and fat cells.

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How does insulin affect the brain?

Abstract. We have learned over the last several decades that the brain is an important target for insulin action. Insulin in the central nervous system (CNS) affects feeding behavior and body energy stores, the metabolism of glucose and fats in the liver and adipose, and various aspects of memory and cognition.

Do brain cells have insulin receptors?

Insulin receptors are known to be located on nerve cells in mammalian brain. Further, insulin receptors are unevenly distributed throughout the brain (with particularly high density in choroid plexus, olfactory bulb and regions of the striatum and cerebral cortex).

What are three functions of insulin?

The major function of insulin is to counter the concerted actions of a number of hyperglycemia-generating hormones and to maintain low blood glucose levels. In addition to its role in regulating glucose metabolism, insulin stimulates lipogenesis, diminishes lipolysis, and increases amino acid transport into cells.

When blood sugar is low which hormone is secreted?


Glucagon is released to stop blood sugar levels dropping too low (hypoglycaemia), while insulin is released to stop blood sugar levels rising too high (hyperglycaemia). The release of glucagon is stimulated by low blood glucose, protein-rich meals and adrenaline (another important hormone for combating low glucose).

What is the relationship between insulin and potassium?

Insulin shifts potassium into cells by stimulating the activity of Na+-H+ antiporter on cell membrane, promoting the entry of sodium into cells, which leads to activation of the Na+-K+ ATPase, causing an electrogenic influx of potassium.

What causes diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes.

Is glut5 insulin dependent?

Because GLUT5 abundance and fructose transport in adipocytes are upregulated in highly insulin-responsive rats but are downregulated dramatically when these rats age and become insulin resistant, this suggests that changes in GLUT5 expression in adipocytes of type 2 diabetics are dependent on insulin sensitivity.

What hormone increases blood sugar?

Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels. Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion! Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas.

What cells does insulin target?


The primary targets for insulin are liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. Insulin has multiple actions in each of these tissues, the net result of which is fuel storage (glycogen or fat). Glucose enters the circulation either from the diet or from synthesis in the liver.

How does insulin allow glucose into the cell?

Insulin helps your body turn blood sugar (glucose) into energy. This rise in glucose triggers your pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin travels through the blood to your body's cells. It tells the cells to open up and let the glucose in.

Does insulin increase blood glucose?

When the body does not convert enough glucose, blood sugar levels remain high. Insulin helps the cells absorb glucose, reducing blood sugar and providing the cells with glucose for energy. When blood sugar levels are too low, the pancreas releases glucagon.

Is insulin a hormone?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).

How does insulin affect metabolism?

Insulin has a major effect on fat metabolism. After a meal, insulin causes "extra" ingested fats and glucose to be stored as fat for future use. Insulin also plays a key role in: The liver.

Does insulin break down glucose?


The role of insulin in the body
If you don't have diabetes, insulin helps: Regulate blood sugar levels. After you eat, carbohydrates break down into glucose, a sugar that is the body's primary source of energy. The pancreas responds by producing insulin, which allows glucose to enter the body's cells to provide energy.

What is glucose in the body?

Answer: Glucose, or commonly called sugar, is an important energy source that is needed by all the cells and organs of our bodies. Some examples are our muscles and our brain. Glucose or sugar comes from the food we eat. Carbohydrates such as fruit, bread pasta and cereals are common sources of glucose.

Does insulin bind to glucose?

When blood glucose levels rise, insulin from the pancreas travels through the blood stream to a fat cell. Insulin then binds to an Insulin Receptor (IR) found in the cell's plasma membrane. This leads to a a great increase in the amount of glucose taken in by the target cells.