How does an electric dipole behave in an electric field?

Asked By: Chong Finagin | Last Updated: 15th June, 2020
Category: science chemistry
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An electric dipole is a charge distribution comprised of two point charges with opposite signs and equal magnitudes. Its net charge is zero due to the opposite charges. Also, the electric field of an electric dipole is weaker than that of a point charge and results from the separation of the charges.

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Similarly one may ask, what is an electric dipole what is its direction?

The electric dipole moment, a vector, is directed along the line from negative charge toward positive charge. Dipole moments tend to point along the direction of the surrounding electric field.

Also, why does a dipole rotate in an electric field? Rotation of a Dipole due to an Electric Field 1, where we denote the distance between the charges as the vector →d, pointing from the negative charge to the positive charge. (a) The net force on the dipole is zero, but the net torque is not. As a result, the dipole rotates, becoming aligned with the external field.

Then, what happens when an electric dipole is placed in uniform electric field?

When an electric dipole is places in a uniform electric field , it experiences no force as the electric force on both the negative and the positive charge are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction so they cancel out. But , it experiences a torque(couple) and hence it rotates.

What is the net torque on the electric dipole?

The electric field will apply a force to +e in the direction of the electric field and a force to -e in the direction opposite the electric field. This will rotate the electric dipole. Recall from Physics 1250 that torque is defined as τ=r×F.

30 Related Question Answers Found

How is electric field defined?

Electric field is defined as the electric force per unit charge. The direction of the field is taken to be the direction of the force it would exert on a positive test charge. The electric field is radially outward from a positive charge and radially in toward a negative point charge.

What is the use of electric dipole?

Dipoles are usually found in molecular structures caused by non-uniform charge distribution of protons and electrons, and are used to find the polarity of a system which is useful in understanding many chemical phenomena such as surface tension, solubility, and melting/boiling points.

What is Q dipole moment?

Dipole moments are a vector quantity. The magnitude is equal to the charge multiplied by the distance between the charges and the direction is from negative charge to positive charge: μ = q · r. where μ is the dipole moment, q is the magnitude of the separated charge, and r is the distance between the charges.

Is electric dipole scalar or vector?

Electric dipole moment is defined as the product of the magnitude of one of the charges and the distance between them. It is a a vector quantity . its direction is from the negative charge to the positive charge. It's unit is coulomb meter.

What is the difference between electric dipole and electric dipole moment?

Answer: Electric dipole is just the separation of two equal and opposite charges separated a small distance whereas electric dipole moment measures the strength of an electric dipole. Electric dipole is just a formation of two equal and opposite charges. We rather calculate its dipole moment.

What is a dipole field?

A dipole field is created when two charges, with the same but opposite charges, are placed near to each other. The electric field along the x-axis is simply the strength of each charge (as calculated using Coulomb's law) added to each other, in the direction of the negative charge.

What is the electric field of a dipole?

The electric dipole moment associated with two equal charges of opposite polarity separated by a distance 'd ' is defined as the vector quantity having a magnitude equal to the product of the charge and the distance between the charges and having a direction from the negative to the positive charge along the line

What is the formula for electric dipole?

The formula for electric dipole moment for a pair of equal & opposite charges is p = qd, the magnitude of the charges multiplied by the distance between the two.

What is meant by non uniform electric field?

If an electric field has the same magnitude and same direction everywhere in a given space then this electric field is uniform, and if either the magnitude or direction or both change then it is a non-uniform electric field in that specified space.

Why an electric dipole placed in a uniform electric field does not undergo acceleration?

Explanation: Because the force on negative charge and the force on positive charge equal and opposite direction so it does not undergo acceleration because Force net is always zero.

Can flux be negative?

Electric flux. The negative flux just equals in magnitude the positive flux, so that the net, or total, electric flux is zero. If a net charge is contained inside a closed surface, the total flux through the surface is proportional to the enclosed charge, positive if it is positive, negative if it is negative.

At what point near the electric dipole is the electric field parallel?

At the point on the axis of line joining the two charges dipole field intensity is parallel to the field. Point must be near to the +ve charge becoz at this point electric field due to dipole will acting along the same direction i.e angle between dipole vector and field bector is zero.

When an electric dipole is placed in an uniform electric field it experience?

When an electric dipole is placed in a uniform electric field, it experiences. An electric dipole placed in uniform electric field experiences a torque which align the dipole parallel to the direction of the electric field with zero net force.

When dipole is placed in non uniform electric field?

Torque is non zero when dipole is placed in uniform as well as non uniform electric field but in non-uniform electric field, dipole will experience net force of attraction whereas in uniform magnetic field, it doesn't.

When an electric dipole is placed in a uniform external electric field parallel to the field it will experience?

If the dipole external electric field are antiparallel,that is, angle between them is non-zero, then the dipole will feel zero torque. When the electric dipole and electric field are parallel,the direction of net force will be in direction of increasing electric field.

Where is the electric field strongest in a dipole?

The pattern of the lines for the dipole indicates that the electric field is greatest in the region between and immediately surrounding the two charges, since the lines are closest together there.