How can infectious agents be transmitted?

Asked By: Bassou Elisei | Last Updated: 7th March, 2020
Category: medical health infectious diseases
4.5/5 (75 Views . 20 Votes)
Infectious diseases commonly spread through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can happen when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn't infected.

Click to see full answer


Subsequently, one may also ask, what are four ways that infection can be spread?

Infectious diseases can spread in a variety of ways: through the air, from direct or indirect contact with another person, soiled objects, skin or mucous membrane, saliva, urine, blood and body secretions, through sexual contact, and through contaminated food and water.

Subsequently, question is, what are the 6 modes of transmission? The six links include: the infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, and susceptible host. The way to stop germs from spreading is by interrupting this chain at any link.

Keeping this in view, what are the 3 modes of transmission?

The modes (means) of transmission are: Contact (direct and/or indirect), Droplet, Airborne, Vector and Common Vehicle. The portal of entry is the means by which the infectious microorganisms gains access into the new host. This can occur, for example, through ingestion, breathing, or skin puncture.

How are the germs that cause infections and contagious diseases spread?

Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic germs (such as bacteria or viruses) that get into the body and cause problems. Some — but not all — infectious diseases spread directly from one person to another. Contagious diseases (such as the flu, colds, or strep throat) spread from person to person in several ways.

36 Related Question Answers Found

What are 5 ways infectious diseases can be spread?

Spread through blood or other body fluids
  • hepatitis B - blood, saliva, semen and vaginal fluids.
  • hepatitis C - blood.
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection - blood, semen and vaginal fluids, breastmilk.
  • cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection - saliva, semen and vaginal fluids, urine, etc.
  • glandular fever - saliva.

What are 5 ways diseases are spread?

Here are five ways they can be spread: From your nose, mouth or eyes – Sneezing, coughing or rubbing the eyes can cause germs to spread to others. Food – Germs from raw foods can be transferred to uncooked foods, such as salads. While the raw food is cooked, killing the germs, the salad is not and can make you sick.

How is virus transmitted?

Viruses can be transmitted in a variety of ways. Some viruses can spread through touch, saliva, or even the air. Other viruses can be transmitted through sexual contact or by sharing contaminated needles. Insects including ticks and mosquitoes can act as "vectors," transmitting a virus from one host to another.

What diseases can be transferred through saliva?

That said, you'd be surprised by what can work their way from your saliva into your nose, throat and lungs:
  • Rhinovirus (colds)
  • Flu virus.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (mononucelosis, or mono)
  • Type 1 herpes (cold sores)
  • Strep bacteria.
  • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
  • Cytomegalovirus (a risk for babies in the womb)

What is the most common means of transmission of infectious diseases?


Contact transmission is the most common form of transmitting diseases and virus. There are two types of contact transmission: direct and indirect. Direct contact transmission occurs when there is physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person.

What are Infectious Diseases examples?

Infectious diseases are diseases caused by living organisms like viruses and bacteria. They can be passed from person to person through body secretions, insects or other means. Examples are SARS, influenza, the common cold, tuberculosis (TB), Hepatitis A and B.

Can you catch a bacterial infection?

Bacterial infections. There is more bacteria in and on our bodies than there are cells in the human body. Bacterial infections can be highly contagious and so you need to take special care to avoid spreading infections by washing hands, covering up when sneezing and coughing, and not sharing cups and drink bottles.

What diseases can you get from urine?

Two well-known diseases that can be spread through urine include typhoid (the likely source of the Croydon Typhoid epidemic in the thirties) and urinary schistosomiasis. However, there are two other points worth mentioning. Firstly, urine from a healthy person is pathogen free, as is the same person's faeces.

What is Mesoendemic?

mesoendemic. Adjective. (not comparable) (medicine) Having some transmission in an area.

What is a carrier of infection?


An asymptomatic carrier (healthy carrier or just carrier) is a person or other organism that has become infected with a pathogen, but that displays no signs or symptoms. Although unaffected by the pathogen, carriers can transmit it to others or develop symptoms in later stages of the disease.

What is a portal of exit?

A portal of exit is the site from where micro-organisms leave the host to enter another host and cause disease/infection. For example, a micro-organism may leave the reservoir through the nose or mouth when someone sneezes or coughs, or in faeces.

What are the different stages of infection?

The five periods of disease (sometimes referred to as stages or phases) include the incubation, prodromal, illness, decline, and convalescence periods (Figure 2). The incubation period occurs in an acute disease after the initial entry of the pathogen into the host (patient).

What is the difference between droplet and airborne?

Airborne spread happens when a germ floats through the air after a person talks, coughs, or sneezes. Droplet spread happens when germs traveling inside droplets that are coughed or sneezed from a sick person enter the eyes, nose, or mouth of another person.

What is the most effective way to prevent infection?

Hand washing is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of infections. You can spread certain "germs" (a general term for microbes like viruses and bacteria) casually by touching another person.

How can you prevent the spread of disease?


Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases
  1. Wash your hands often.
  2. Get vaccinated.
  3. Use antibiotics sensibly.
  4. Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.
  5. Be smart about food preparation.
  6. Disinfect the 'hot zones' in your residence.
  7. Practice safer sex.
  8. Don't share personal items.

What are the routes of transmission?

The transmission of microorganisms can be divided into the following five main routes: direct contact, fomites, aerosol (airborne), oral (ingestion), and vectorborne. Some microorganisms can be transmitted by more than one route.

What is a portal of entry?

Definition. A portal of entry is the site through which micro-organisms enter the susceptible host and cause disease/infection. Infectious agents enter the body through various portals, including the mucous membranes, the skin, the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts.